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Full text of "Dynamic testing of pavements."

Research Laboratory 

of the 
Portland Cement Association 



Bulletin 6 



Dynamic Testing of Pavements 



BY 

GERALD PICKETT 



April, 1945 
CHICAGO 



Authorized Reprint from Copyrighted 

Journal of the American Concrete Institute 
New Center Building, 7400 Second Boulevard 

Detroit 2, Michigan 

April 1945* Proceedings F. 41, p. 473 



* 



TitU 41-20 



B part of PROCEEDINGS, A O 1 C IRETE I TE Vol 41 



AMERICAN 



JOURNAL 

< the 

CONCRETE INSTITUTE 



. 



Vol 16 No 5 



M 



» 



jAN 



April 1945 



Dynamic Testing of Pavementt 

Bv ALD PI ■ 



SYNOPSIS 

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• I 









K' "i 






INTRODUCTION 



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474 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CONCRETE INSTITUTE April 1945 

40 cycles per second. Recently, Long, Kurtz, and Sandenaw^ 67) have 
developed instruments that give reasonable accuracy for the time of 
travel of waves between two points on the surface of a pavement slab, 
even when the points are no more than a foot apart. They measured 
velocity of waves produced by impact and also those produced by 
sustained vibration at frequencies ranging from 1000 to 2000 cycles per 
second. They also made some progres- in interpreting the results in 
terms of Young's modulus of elasticity of the pavements by the use of 
equations developed by Lamb (S) and Timoshenko. (9) 

The accomplishments noted above and the fact that the use of the 
equations of Lamb and Timoshenko for this purpose may be question- 
able stimulated the author to prepare the present paper. 

LIMITATIONS OF PREVIOUS EQUATIONS 

The equations of Lamb and Timoshenko are not strictly applicable 
to pavements because: 

(1) They are for freely vibrating slabs, whereas the pavement is in 
contact with the subgrade. 

(2) They are for a two-dimensional problem (plane waves), wherea- 
the vibration of a pavement is a three-dimensional problem. 

In general both the shape and the support of field structures are such 
as to make analysis of vibration more complicated than that for small 
laboratory specimens. 

So far as is known, the nearest analytical approach to the vibration 
of a pavement was a study made by Love a0) in which he investigated 
the vibration of the earth's crust, a — uming that the elastic properties 
of the crust differ from those of the interior. However, Love's studies 
were also confined to two-dimensional problems and only dealt with 
cases in which the crust was less rigid than the interior, whereas a con- 
crete pavement will usually be more rigid than its subgrade. 

SCOPE OF PRESENT DISCUSSION 

This paper will discuss certain possible modes of vibration of a pave- 
ment in contact with it- s ubgrade that are likely to occur in the dynamic 
testing of pavements. An equation giving the relation between driving 
frequency, thickness of slab, elastic constants of both pavement and 
-ubgrade, and the velocit\ T of wave is derived on the i -sumption of con- 
tinuity of motion between pavement and subgrade. The equations of 
elasticity applicable to a homogeneous, i-otropic, elastic solid are used 
for both the slab and the subgrade. 

If experiments prove that the equations are generally applicable to 
pavement- in place, then from a few dynamic measurements it should 



DYNAMIC TESTING OF PAVEMENTS 475 

be possible to determine not only Young's modulus for the concrete 
but also the thickness of the pavement and a modulus for the subgrade. 



PARTICULAR SOLUTIONS OF THE DIFFERENTIAL 

EQUATIONS OF VIBRATION 

When expressed in the cylindrical coordinates r, 0, z the differential 
equations of vibration for a homogeneous, isotropic, elastic solid are: (n) 

d r r dQ dz dt 



r dQ dz dr dt 2 

nrVt dA 2G d , m , 2G dU d 2 w 

X + 2G)— -(r\) + — — = p — 

dz r dr r dQ dt- 

where u, v, w are displacements in the r, 9, z directions, respectively; 

t is time; 

du . u . 1 dv dw 

A — H H — ; -r 



21 



dr r r dQ dz 
1 dw dv 



r dQ dz 



du dw 

2T = — ; 

dz dr 

dv . v 1 du 

2W = — + 



dr r r dQ 
p = mass density; 

X = — , Lamp's constant; 

(1 + M ) (1 - 2 M ) 

Q = . , modulus of elasticity in shear; 

2(1 + m) 

E — Young's modulus; and 
^ = Poisson's ratio. 

Four particular solutions of the differential equations will be used in 
the following discussions. Two of these, designated H and V, apply 
to the pavement slab, and two, designated Hi and Vi apply to the 
subgrade. The solutions will be used in pairs, the H solution for the 
pavement with the Hi solution for the subgrade, etc. In the H and Hi 
solutions points on the line r = move in a horizontal direction and in 
the V and Vi solutions these points move in a vertical direction. In 
the following all subscripts of unity except that designating a Bessel 



476 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CONCRETE INSTITUTE 



April 1945 



function of the first order refer to the subgrade 

The solutions are as follows: 



(J and Ji are Bessel 



functions.) 



u 



Z sin 6 cos pt 



v 



Z cos G cos pt 



Jo (a r) 
Jx (ar) 



ar 



w 



= Z' sin 9 cos pt J\ (ar) 



J\ (ar) 



ar 



(H) 



U>! 



t'l 



IV I 



Z x sin cos pt 



= Zi cos 9 cos pt 



Jo (ar) 
Ji (ar) 



ar 



= —Z x ' sin cos pt Jx (ar) 



Ji (ar) 



ar _ 



(HO 



u 
v 

w 



= Z cos pt Jx (ar) 

= 

= — Z' COS pt J (ar) 



(V) 



u x 

Vi 
Id 



= Z\ cos pt J\ (ar) 

= 

= Zx COS pt J (ar) 



(Vi) 



where Z = M cosh mz + 3/' sinh mz + N cosh nz + TV' sinh nz\ 



Z' = 



Mm . . . M'm , Na . , 
sinh mz + cosh mz + — sinh nz 



a 



a 



n 



V 

+ - — cosh nz; 



n 



Zj = Re{Mxer m { + AW] ; 



Z/ = #e 



-Uimi „ . . Nia m _ 



a 



ni 



hi 



n 



= aVl 



a 



> 



a 



= aVl 
P 



b 2 



mi 



n 



a > X + 2G ' 



Qi 



b = 



V 




p 

G 



6i 



aVl - 


a i 2 ; 


aVl ~ 


bi 2 ; 


P J 


Pi 


P I Pi 


+ 2G l 

* 






\ DYNAMIC TESTING OF PAVEMENTS 477 

p = 2tt times the frequency of vibration; 

a = p/V = 2w/l where T r is the radial velocity which the 

wave approaches asymptotically as it gets farther from 
its source and I is the corresponding wave length; and 

M, N, M f , N', M u and A\ are constants proportional to the 

amplitude of vibration. 

Re [ ] signifies the real part of the expression in the 

bracket if either mi or n x is imaginary in a mathematical sense. If both 
mi and m are real, then the Re in front of the brackets may be disregarded. 

In each pair of solutions, for example, H and Hi, the frequency p/2r, 
the velocity p/a, the six amplitude constants M, N, M' } N', M h and 
Nij and the physical properties are arbitrary. That is, the differential 
equations are satisfied for any arbitrary values of these parameters. 
However, the boundary requirements at the top of the pavement and at 
the common boundary between pavement and subgrade permit the 
elimination of the six amplitude constants. The result is an equation, 
called the frequency equation, giving the relation between frequency, 
velocity of wave propagation and the physical properties of pavement 
and subgrade. It is of interest that the frequency equation is the same 
whichever pair of solutions is used and depends only on the assumptions 
made in regard to boundary conditions. In the derivation which follows 
the assumption is made that the top of the pavement is free of force 
and that the boundary stresses and displacements of the pavement are 
equal to those of the subgrade at their common boundary. 

DERIVATION OF THE FREQUENCY EQUATION 

The plane z = is taken in the middle of a slab of thickness 2c and 
the direction G = is taken as clue east as shown in Fig. 1. 

The assumed boundary requirements result in the following relations:* 

1. The top of the pavement is free of vertical force. a z = at z = —C. 

2. The top of the pavement is free of radial and tangential forces. 
r« = r 02 = at z = - c. 

3. At the common boundary the vertical displacement of the pave- 
ment equals the vertical displacement of the subgrade. w = Wi at z = c. 

i. At the common boundary the radial and tangential displacements 
of the pavement equal the radial and tangential displacements, respec- 
tively, of the subgrade. u = u x and v = r, at z = c. 

5. At the common boundary the vertical normal stresses are equal. 

<r, = a\, at ,: = c. 



*Two relations are given in each of requirements 2, 4. and 6; but in each case the second relation is 
satisfied if the first is satisfied. Therefore the two relations give only one independent equation. 



478 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CONCRETE INSTITUTE 



April 1945 



Fig. 1 — Element of pave 
ment slab and subgrade 



North 




West 



South 



Subgrade 



!/ 




"T 



6. At the common boundary the boundary shear stresses are equal. 
?Tt = Tirz and t Qz = 7i e * at z = c. 

When either pair of solutions for displacements is used and use is 
made of the relations previously given between m, n, X, G, a, b, m u ni, 
Xi, G h ai, and 5i and of the following relations between stresses and 
displacements, 



°* = X ( 



dw du u 

dz dr r r 



1 dv\ 

r dO/ 



+ 2G 



dw 
3z 



TZ 



Qi dw du 



dr 



t& 



= G 




dz 

dw dv 

r 

<99 



dz 



the six boundary relations listed above result in the following six equa- 
tions, respectively: 

(2 — ¥)[M cosh mc — M' sinh mc] + 2 [N cosh nc — N' sinh nc] = . . (1) 



2m 



[ — M sinh mc -J- M' cosh mc) 



a. 



+ (2 - b 2 ) — [ - N sinh nc + N' cosh nc] = 



n 

JbfWt 

— [M sinh mc + M' cosh mc] + — [TV sinh nc + TV' cosh nc] 
a n 



7?c 




mi . , TV 
— er m l e H 



ni 



k J 



(2) 



(3) 



DYNAMIC TESTING OF PAVEMENTS 



479 



M cosh mc + M' sinh mc + .V cosh nc + W sinh nc 

= fie [ Mie-Y + iV>V ] 

(2 - b 2 ) [M cosh wc + 3/' sinh mc] + 2[iV cosh nc + iV' sinh nc] 



(4) 



G?! 



G 



fie [ (2 - 6r) Mie-V + 2AV-Y ] (5) 



2m 



a 



\M sinh mc + M' cosh mc] + (2 - 6 2 ) — |JV sinh nc + i\T cosh ncl 



(?i 



G 



fir 



a 



a 



(6) 



2 ^- l e-*V + (2 - fei 2 ) - tfi *•« 

The elimination of the six amplitude constants M, AT, iV, iV', M u 
and JVi from these six equations gives the following frequency equation: 

1 - A, - A* 



Wi (1 



.4, - A/) 



3 



1 - A 



i,' 



1 - A 



A 







(^; 



' 



where A x = 4> 



2 — b 2 2 
coth mc — k coth »c + - 

2 



6r & 2 V 1 



a 



<> 



2 



2 



/ 



1 



A 



-r 



2 ~ &i a 2 - b 2 cQtb _ 2 - 6x* k CQth M 



2 



2 



2 



6 2 



+ fo —VI - <$ 



A 3 = <}> 



2 -_W 2^ coth mc _ AzilL fc coth nc 



_ 2 
b 2 



2 



2 



+ j\ ^ VI — 6 2 coth mc coth nc 
2 



A 4 = 



'9 I>2 

_ coth mc - k coth nc 

L 2 



+ 



2 - 6r b 2 Vl - V 



2 



2 



fei 



coth mc coth nc 



4> = 



G\ 



2G 



2 - 6 2 



coth mc — A: cotli nc 



2 



h = V(i - a 2 ) (i - & 2 ) ; 

ft 1= = VI - &i 2 ^ V" < x > i- e -' if til is real 

/ h = - V6i- - 1 cot (acV&i 2 - 1) i f fri 2 > !> i- e -> if "i is 



imaginary 



/i= VI 



a 



if ai 2 < 1, i.e., if mi is real; 



f 1 = V«r - 1 tan (acVoti 2 - 1) if <*i 2 > 1> ie., if mi is 



imaginary 



480 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CONCRETE INSTITUTE April 1945 

The expressions for Ai, A 2 ', A 3 ' } and A,' used in the frequency equa- 
tion are the same as for the expressions for A u A 2 , A&, and A h respec- 
tively, except that in every instance coth is replaced by tanh. 

THE MEANING OF IMAGINARY AND COMPLEX VALUES FOR 

m, n, mi, AND m 

The question of real and imaginary quantities entered into the solu- 
tions for the subgrade. The reason for this was that certain of the 
expressions became complex (contained both real and imaginary parts) 
under some conditions. 

If the velocity of propagation of the waves horizontally is greater 
than the normal travel of disturbances within the subgrade, then either 
rii or both n* and m% become either imaginary or complex quantities 
in a mathematical sense. If internal friction is neglected as in the 
present study, then they become imaginary, but if internal friction is 
taken into account they become complex quantities. That is, if in the 

foregoing development p/a is greater than V <?i/pij then 61 will be 
greater than unity and rti will be imaginary, and if p/a is also greater 

than V (Xi + 2Gi)/pi, then mi will also be imaginary. When n x and m y 
are imaginary, the expressions €r\ z and e~ m i become trigonometric 
functions of the deptli with both real and imaginary parts. For example, 
the real part of the expression for Z\ becomes 

Z x = Mi cos (az V aj - 1) + A r i cos (az V &i 2 - 1) 

and for Z/ becom< 



Z,' = Mi V ar - 1 sin (az V a x 2 - 1) - N> 



sin (az V br — 1) 
V 6r - 1 



The factor n may also be imaginary, but such a possibility does not 
introduce any ambiguity into the solutions since cosh nz and (sinh nz)/n 
arc both real whether n is real or imaginary. The factor m will ordinar- 
ily not be imaginary because the .^liear modulus of the pavement is 
greater than the shear modulus of the subgrade. 

If either ~tn y or is imaginary, then as just indicated, a part of the 
expression for a displacement within the subgrade will be a trigonometric 
function of the depth z. Consequently, this part of the expression will 
indicate no diminution of maximum amplitude of vibration with increase 
of depth in the subgrade. Had internal friction been taken into account, 
the solutions would indicate a decrease in amplitude with increase of 
deptli. For example, if the assumption is made that internal friction 
is adequately considered by replacing the usual Hooke's law by equa- 
tions of the type* 

The term with /has been added to the usual expression for Hooke's law such as given by Timoshenko in 
Theory of Elasticity (New York: McGraw-Hill. 1934), pp. 7-10. 



DYNAMIC TESTING OF PAVEMENTS 481 



., +f de - l 



dt E 



a x — n<Jy — /da 



I xy I J 



dt G 



then solutions corresponding to those given in V, above for the subgrade 
can be written 

e ipt { tf (l) (ar) 



u l = Zi sin 6 Re 



l_ . a/ 



with similar explosions for n and w h where the "real" Bessel functions 
of the first kind (J and JO nave been replaced by "complex" Bessel 
functions of the third kind (#,<» and flV 1 *)*; the "real" function cos pi 
has been replaced by the "complex" function e ipt ; and m x and m have 



the values 



«i 2 i b{2 

in place of the values given previously. 

A separation of im and m into their real and imaginary parts shows 
that each has a positive real part for all values of a L and b x . Therefore, 
when internal friction of the subgrade is taken into account, the ampli- 
tude of vibration decreases with increase, of depth. 

In the above type of solution for vibration with internal friction the 
displacements and stresses are discontinuous at the line r - 0. It is 
on this line that the energy necessary to maintain sustained vibration 
is assumed to be supplied. To restrict the driving force to points on 
the pavement rather than at the line r = would necessitate a still more 
com pli c at ed solution . 

Since it is believed that internal friction has only a small effect on 
the velocity of propagation of the waves and since it was desired to 
keep the analysis relatively simple, friction was neglected in the deriva- 
tion of the frequency equation. 

NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF THE FREQUENCY EQUATION 

The frequency equation derived above expresses the relation between 
the velocity! of wave propagation p/a, the frequency of vibration 
p/2r, and the physical properties of the pavement and subgrade. Un- 
fortunately, this relation (Equation A) is rather involved, and numerical 
solution is not made readily. The method of solution found to be best 
in general was as follows: 

*Bessel functions of first, second, and third ktabn treated I in Tables of Functions, by Jahnke and 
•tfmAc **H FH (New York- G. E. Stechert & Co., 1938), pp. izb-zbK. , 

W mifl L remembered that the velocity of waves traveling radially depends on distance from the 
urce. p/a is the velocity that they approach with increase of distance. 



source 



482 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CONCRETE INSTITUTE April 1945 

First, assume values for G%/G, X/G, X1/G1, pi/p. 
oond, select a value of b, the ratio of velocity of propagation to 

Third, determine a, a 1( and &i and the function s of these quantitii 
and <>f b that will b ded later such a- V 1 - 6 2 , V 1 - &i*, (2 - ft )/2, 

Pourtl lect a value of *c *, th< patio of frequency times pave ment 
tin. to the i ocity of wav< propagation. 

1 ill. perform all indicated substitutions into the frequeni equation, 
I (ion A. 

xt |, ,1, ,d be of tc/w and make tin indies' d substi- 

i q Equal ion A. 

■1,. , binuethepi >f selecting values of mc/w until Equation 

■ 1 to desi d accuracy 
I t othei ilues of b d repeat the above procedure a,s 

nam flit d)|c. 

1 procedure i shown in Fig. 2 where the velocity 

,f i) ia plotted : ist frequency of vibration tinu 

bg de 
Pig 2 ■ iai iIk are thret possil w . - velocities for each 

: | Mm. thick) The bighesi of th< . vel it h 

i am ..I loi udinal v - - in ■ i pavement 

i<l< The low< t of tli i Ion' s i- alm< 

if ti versa ' ■ waves in the pa\ i mi ni 

i be d< . The intermediate locity is het i n 

* ii tin ul • .done and i i of Raj leigh 

in ui \i In [iiencii ill tlo< evi li< ch 

d: - i ' he |o ment, 

liglu-st and low ire p ctically indepei l- 

i ;ulc jh of ( l< i)ij>oi I an< < 

I J • l inav therefon urn rosary to ol ■ 

tig in (j on. 1 1 < a'l, < he follow 

I \ ! ) nio^hc i II he :t<lt 






I ng dina) 

_ 

/ 

rvi • • iii i ■ i 



DYNAMIC TESTING OF PAVEMENTS 



483 



m 



Assumptions 



p,-- 0.8 p 
6,-0.46 



<D 



0> 



where p- mass density 

6 = shear modulus 

jx = Po is son's ratio 

without subscript refers to pavement 

with " " " subgrade 




Highest velocity % approximately 
that of longitudinal waves in a 
free slab 



0.4 



Velocity of Rayleigh waves 
in subgrode 

in term e dio te velocity 




f0 



Lowest velocity, approximately that of_ 
transverse waves in a free slab 



Velocity of Rayleigh 
waves in pavement 



ro 



0.2 



0,4 



0,6 



Frequency times thickness times yp/G 



Fig. 2— Effect of frequency of vibration, thickness of pavement; and properties of subgrade 
on velocity of propagation of waves 

These two frequency equations are readily obtained from Equation A 
by setting G x equal to zero. When this is done, either Equation L or T 
must be satisfied in order that a solution exist. 

No correspondingly simple equation can be written for t he approxi- 
mate determination of the intermediate velocity. However, at low 
frequencies it is approximately the velocity of Rayleigh waves in the 
subgrade; at high frequencies it is approximately the velocity of Ray- 
leigh waves in the pavement; and at intermediate frequencies it lies 
between these two limiting velocities. Therefore, a knowledge of these 
two limiting velocities may be all that is necessary for practical purposes. 
The relations are: 



For Rayleigh waves in the subgrade 




2 




= Vd 



«r) (1 - &i 2 ) 



(Ri) 



and for Rayleigh waves in the pavement 




2 




k 



(R) 



The foregoing analysis is based upon the assumption that the proper- 
ties of the subgrade do not vary with depth. The properties of the 
subgrade, of course, do vary with depth; but, because of dampening, 
the properties at greater depths probably have no appreciable effect 
on the wave. It was shown by Love< l0 > that the velocity of Rayleigh 



484 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CONCRETE INSTITUTE April 1945 

waves decreased with frequency if the rigidity of the earth increased 
with depth. Therefore, le might expect in an actual test that the inter- 
mediate vel< ity would first deer* se and later incres - with increase 
requency rather than exhibit a continual increase a- -hown by Fig. 2. 
Since for a gi\ q pavement ou a given subgrade there are three pos- 
8 il v ,;r lociti( - >r each frequency, there may be -ome question a 

situatioi in a given test. It should also be kept in mind that 

of these wav< locities the motion may be that corresponding 

- eitl he H-soluti( or th V-solutioo or a combination of tl m. 

Final conch - - will pro biy h to await a study of test data, but 

itisb tl ty P vibration can be largely controll I by the 

d] _ Tin- belief i^ based upon a study of the theoretical 

ds. This study indicates the following: 

(1 It th< driving is d ted horizontally, wai - of the H- 

. wit] ghest of the tin velocities should predominate 

onclus d is based upon tin t that in this case points on the 

1 = have only a I rizontal re on and of relatively high ampli- 

i;, ; ively lai in tion of tl oint ipplication of tl driving 
and din n oi the driving force is neo ssary for lai s energy 

2 1: thi borii illy direc d foro - not applied n r the i atral 

f tl . slab, v res tl lowesl the three velocities will also b 

1. T » - will also be of tl H-soli Thea lower- 

Locity \ p; luced to the exclusion of tl a\< - of th 

th Sliver ] hi - a < th 

] w a the driving applied 1 rizontalh 

p of . v - - higb 3t rather t ; n tl 

\ ill 

If t: d . .■ I vertically, wav< oi Vhs lution 

i v - ild predomim This ty 

j. 1 mo 'ii for points oi the lin< r = 

(4) V s of 1 ial velocity should be pi I in all 

y y control! pro]) th 

1 that . ti\ mplitude will * la- 

in _ prop o: gi ]'• rhaps I ! 

Ill • unced h fn ienci< It is believed thai 

mid rodu unbalan 

ing i - I be ma ibl for tl of tl 

That h pr 1 i for both H- and V- 

< ith oth lieved to 1 

Wav Ftl \ - lution fa - i il • tin 

a Id 1 pr i by a pressun bulb inseii f 1 

ment if the ] ssure flucti i j ily. 



DYNAMIC TESTING OF PAVEMENTS 



485 



It should be remembered that the velocities mentioned above are 
the limiting velocities which are approached asymptotically as the waves 
get farther from the source. Since velocity varies with distance from 
the source, the nodes are non-uniformly spaced, especially near the 
origin, and spaced differently for the different types of vibration. 
Moreover, in vibration according to the H-solution the character of 
the motion and the spacing of the nodes are different in the direction of 
the driving force, north-south directions in Fig. 1, from what they are 
in a direction at right angles to the driving force, east-west in Fig. 1. 
The location of the nodes will also depend on which displacements, 
horizontal or vertical, are being detected. 

The table below giving 1/tt times the roots of the Bessel functions 
involved should be helpful because the relative distances of the nodes 
from the origin should correspond to the tabular values given. For 
example, as is evident from the equations for displacement, the vertical 
displacement in the V-solution is zero at every distance r from the 
origin for which J (ar) is zero. 

1/ir Times the Roots of Bessel Functions 



Order of 
the Root 




1 
2 
3 

4 

5 

n 



Jo(x) 



7655 

1 757 
2.755 
3.754 

4 753 
n - 25 



•/, 





1 220 

2 233 
3.238 

4 241 

5 243 
+ 0.25 



Jo - 



J x (x) 



x 



5860 
1.696 
2.717 
3 726 
4.731 
n - . 25 



♦Where n is a large number. 

As is evident from an examination of the equations for displacements, 
the amplitude of motion of the antinode decreases with distance from 
the origin. The rate of decrease depends on the angle 9 for waves of 
the H-solution: for example, in the direction of the driving force the 
amplitude is approximately inversely proportional to the square root 
of the distance from the origin; at right angles to the driving force the 
amplitude is approximately inversely proportional to the three-halves 
power of the distance. In the V-solution the motion of the antinodes is 
approximately inversely proportional to the square root of the distance 
away from the origin in any direction. These facts should be helpful 
in interpreting results. 

Based upon the foregoing theoretical analysis the following experi- 
mental procedure with equipment such as that described by Long et al. (6) 
is recommended. 



486 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CONCRETE INSTITUTE April 1945 

1. Place driver so as to produce a vertical driving force to the top 
of the pavement slab. 

2. With input to driver set at a given frequency determine location 
of nodes by moving "pick-up" on radial lines from the driver and noting 
phase shift and magnitude of response on oscilloscope. (One pair of 
plates of the cathode ray oscilloscope will be connected to the pick-up 
circuit and the other pair will be connected to the driver circuit.) 

3. Repeat the test at various frequencies. 

4. Either repeat the above with driver set so as to produce horizontal 
motion or use the Long et al. method of determining the velocity of 
longitudinal waves. 

5. Plot velocity of waves versus frequency and compare with curves 
of Fig. 2. 

6. Determine proper values of G/p and thickness of slab that will give 
best agreement with theoretical curves. 

7. If data on the properties of the subgrade are desired and the waves 
of intermediate velocity have not been detected and their velocity 
determined, use a mechanical driver of relatively low frequency. This 
should produce the waves of intermediate velocity and of sufficient 
relative amplitude for detection. 

Example 

Suppose thai at 1000 cycles per second the distances between two nodes (other than 
tli- irsl two nodes with the driving force acting first vertically and then horizontally 
are 2.25 ft. and 7.00 ft., respectively. The corresponding velocities will be 4,500 ft. 

pel \ and 1 1,000 fl per sec. (1 =21 times frequency/ and the ratio of the velocities 

w ill be 1500 1 t,000 = o 1. Assume the lower velocity to be that of transverse waves 

nd 1 1 j ' highei velocit} to he thai of Longitudinal waves. An examination of Fig. I 

' that the velocity I these waves have a ratio of 0.H21 at a value of about 0.115 

f. the ;i|.m asaG and thai the corresponding values of the ordinates are approximately 

i ") ah' I 0.50. Tin.- mean£ I hat 



, 11,000 

V( p - ■ — = 9,030 it 'sec 

1 .55 



a i 



9,030 X 0.115 
thickness = = 1.04 It. 

1,000 

lb. I s 

If den* f pavement is 150 lb. | ft*, then p = 4.66 — - — 

od G = 4 I 9030 - = -0 X 10 6 lb. per ft-' = 2.64 X 10* psi 
Jl ' p - 1 <i r • n E = 1 iX 2 64 X 10» = 0.15 X 10 8 psi 

A I t at other fi [u< v, J000 cycles pei eco Id n apj i- 

matelyihe mevahi irthickne L moduli for the pavement. If radically diff< 

va are ol d, then th bave not 1 iden ied. One v< I 

in on* e ie m\\i\\\ have n the intermediate v< 



DYNAMIC TESTING OF PAVEMENTS 487 



If the intermediate velocities are not in accord with the middle curve of Fig. 2, then 
other curves based on other assumptions should be prepared for these velocities. 

All of the above discussion has pertained to sustained vibration 
(stationary waves). Sustained vibration can be considered as the result 
of two equal continuous wave-trains (progressive waves) traveling in 
opposite directions. An adequate treatment of a single, impact-gener- 
ated wave-train of finite length traveling away from a source is beyond 
the scope of this paper. Because of the finite length of the train and 
because many different frequencies are usually represented, not all parts 
travel at the same velocity and the wave-form changes as the wave 
proceeds. However, of practical importance is the fact that the higher 
velocity (upper curve, Fig. 2) is almost independent of frequency for 
low frequencies. Therefore, a wave-train of longitudinal waves of low 
frequency can be propagated with relatively little change of wave-form. 
It is probably because of this fact that the velocities of "longitudinal" 
waves in pavements have been determined successfully by measuring 
the time required for a short wave-train of longitudinal waves to travel 
between two points, the short wave-train being produced by an impact. (6) 

The effects of variations in physical properties of the subgrade at 
different depths below the pavement, and the significance of the fact 
that the pavement does not extend indefinitely in a horizontal direction 
have not been considered. However, vibration of appreciable amplitude 
will probably not extend very far from the source either down into the 
subgrade or horizontally in the pavement owing to the effect of internal 
friction, especially at high frequencies. It is therefore believed that 
only the pavement within a few feet of the source and only the material 
immediately below the pavement will have an appreciable effect upon 
the wave velocity near the source when the frequency is relatively high. 

If the character of the subgrade at considerable depth is desired, 
relatively low frequencies would be required. The above analysis may 
be inadequate for a study of the variation in properties of the subgrade 
with depth since no provision was made for such variation in the equation. 

SUMMARY 

Equations are derived for the combined vibration of pavement and 
subgrade. Numerical solution of the frequency equation shows that 
for a given slab on a given subgrade three wave velocities are possible 
for each frequency of vibration. The highest of these velocities is almost 
the same as that of longitudinal vibration of a free slab; the lowest, 
almost the same as that of transverse (flexural) vibration of a free slab; 
and the intermediate, somewhere between the velocity of Rayleigh 
waves in the uncovered subgrade and the velocity of Rayleigh waves in 
the pavement. 



488 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CONCRETE INSTITUTE April 1945 

Suggestions are given for the production of any one of the three 
possible velocities to the virtual exclusion of the other two. 

NOTATION (PARTIAL LIST) 

r, Q, z = cylindrical coordinates 

u, v, a: = displacements in r, G, z directions, respectively, of the point (r, 0, z) in the 

pavement 

Ui, v h 10] = displacements in r, 9, z directions, respectively, of the point (r, 9, z) in 

the subgrade 

t — time 

p, p, = mass densities of pavement and subgrade, respectively 
E 

~ a + n i - 2~» ' 

Xl ~ (1 + m ) (1 - 2 M i) 

By E] = Young's modulus for pa emeni and for Bubgrade, respectively 
M ^ ^ = poisBon J 8 ratio for pavement and subgracle, respectively 
G } G = Shear modulus for pavemenl and subgrade, respectively 
<j x a y , a z = norma] stresses 
Trg f TQ Zt etc. = shear sses 
= norma] ain in x-di] i ion 
, ye*, Jxy = shear e ra lb 
p = 2ir timi frequency of sustained vibration 

a = p/] = 2m I win V is the radial velocity which the wave approaches asympto- 
tical) ii g« te farther from its source • 1 1 is the corresponding wave Length 
= hall i bickn< - oi pa^ ement 

p I p i bio of velocitj oi : »pa bion to velocity of compressional waves 

n ~~ a \ x -f 2G jn unerii '' pavemenl 

p I p ratio of >city of propagation to velocity of si vr waves in interior 
~ \ q o\ i ; ordinate of I 'ig. 1 

m = a V 1 — o 



n = a \ 1 b 2 

a lf h ■ definition! ac a, b, pn, and n, espectively, < pt that thoK 

with subscri] unit) r< i to subgrade instead of pavemenl 

R< [ i ]i u ' ' i '' ' ,n ]n brackets 

J . ./ J 5 of tin &rs1 kind of order zero and unity, respectively 

// ( \ Hi 1 = 



REFERENCES 

L T. C. Powi uig's Mo if J by A Sonic 

_ M . 3 rt II, 

'2. F. B. Horaibrook, U A o o Thawii udi< 

f B i □ i 101. 5 l> e. (1 

;j. \\ 1 Thi !, "Y surii in al Prop - oi ( 1 1 

Dyn M< I \m. 6 Ma . \ W, 111 



DYNAMIC TESTING OF PAVEMENTS 489 



4. Leonard Obert and Wilbur I. Duvall, ' 'Discussion of Dynamic Methods of Test- 
ing Concrete with Suggestions for Standardization/' Proc Am. Soc, Testing Mats, 
V. 41, 1053 (1941). 

5. R. K. Bernhard, "Highway Investigation by Means of Induced Vibrations/' 
Engr. Exp. Station Series, Penn. State Coll V. 33, Bull. No. 49 (1939). 

6. Bartlett G. Long, Henry J. Kurtz and Thomas A. Sandenaw, "An Instrument and 
a, Technic for Field Determination of the Modulus of Elasticity and Flexural Strength 
of Concrete (Pavements)"; ACI Journal, Jan. 1945; Proceedings V. 41, p. 217. 

7. B. G. Long and H. J. Kurtz, "Effect of Curing Methods upon the Durability of 
Concrete As Measured by Changes in the Dynamic Modulus of Elasticity/' Proc. Am. 
Soc. Testing Mats. V. 43, 1051 (1943). 

8. Horace Lamb, "On Waves in an Elastic Plate/' Roy. Soc. Proc. 1916-17, Ser. A, 
V. 93, p. 114. 

9. S. Timoshenko, "Transverse Vibrations of Bars of Uniform Cross-Section," 
Phil. Mag. V. 43, 125 (1922) (Series 6). 

10. A. E. H. Love, Some Problems of Geodynamics (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1911). 

11. A. E. H. Love, Mathematical Theory of Elasticity, 4th ed. (Cambridge Univ. 
Press, 1927), p. 288.